To assess the probability of achieving ciprofloxacin pharmacodynamic targets with currently recommended dosages in order to investigate the risk of ciprofloxacin underexposure in children with cystic fibrosis.
Pharmacodynamic analysis using Monte Carlo simulations of three previously published population pharmacokinetic models.
Pediatric hospital in Paris, France.
A total of 120 pediatric outpatients with cystic fibrosis followed over a 2-year period (2007-2008), whose ages and body weights were within the range of the values observed in the three published studies.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
The ciprofloxacin dosage regimens used for the simulations were those currently recommended for the treatment of pulmonary infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to ciprofloxacin: 10 mg/kg 3 times/day intravenously and 20 mg/kg twice/day orally. Pharmacodynamic targets for ciprofloxacin were defined as a 24-hour area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC):minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of less than 110 for resistance acquisition and greater than 125 for bacterial eradication. For a P. aeruginosa isolate with an MIC close to the clinical breakpoint, the probability of the AUC:MIC ratio to be less than 110 achieved values of 74-100%, depending on the model used, whereas the probability to achieve an AUC:MIC ratio greater than 125 decreased to 0-22%.
These results provide a pharmacologic hypothesis-that the current dosing recommendations of ciprofloxacin for cystic fibrosis children may be suboptimal-to explain the decrease in the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin observed in children with cystic fibrosis. These results need to be confirmed in prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies performed in children with cystic fibrosis in order to determine whether higher doses, with or without therapeutic drug monitoring, or a lower clinical breakpoint could be considered in this population.
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